Differences between Insulin and Glucagon

S.N Insulin S.N Glucagon
1. Secreted by red color β-cells of islets of Langerhans. 1. Secreted by green color α-cells of islets of Langerhans.
2. Decreases blood fatty acids. 2. Increases blood fatty acids.
3. Decreases blood glucose level. 3. Increases blood glucose level.
4. Over secretion leads to hypoglycemia. 4. Over secretion leads to hyperglycemia.
5. Deficiency results to diabetes mellitus. 5. Deficiency results to hypoglycemia and glucagonoma.
6. Ketogenic effect does not occur. 6. Ketogenesis is promoted.
7. Synthesis of fat and its storage increases. 7. Lipolysis increases.
8.  Protein (51 amino acids) with two short polypeptide chains linked by disulfide bridges. 8. 29 amino acids are used to make it and is a small protein.
9. Secreted in response to high sugar level in the blood. 9. Secreted in response to low sugar level in the blood.
10. Formed from pro-insulin precursor molecule. 10. Formed from pro-glucagon precursor molecule.
11. Converts excess of glucose to glycogen (glycogenesis). 11. Converts glycogen (glycogenolysis) to glucose (gluconeogenesis).
12. Uptake of glucose and amino acids into the cells stimulated. 12. Release of fatty acids from triglycerides stimulated.

4. Regulation of Blood Glucose | ATrain Education

Image source: atraineducation


i) https://www.healthline.com/health/diabetes/insulin-and-glucagon#working-together

ii) https://step1.medbullets.com/endocrine/109004/insulin-and-glucagon

iii) https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/316427

iv) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-3J6QRMerQE