Differences between neurotransmitters and neuromodulators

S.N Neurotransmitters S.N Neuromodulators
1. Available in axon terminals. 1. Available in all parts of the body.
2. Are generally packed in small synaptic vesicles. 2. Are packed in large synaptic vesicles.
3. Nerve impulse propagates through synapse. 3. Synaptic transmission is modified and regulated.
4. Change the electric potential- depolarization or repolarization while functioning. 4. Have diverse actions or functions.
5. Are chemically amino acids, amine or others. 5. Are only peptides chemically.
6. Only one neurotransmitter is present in neuron. 6. One or more neuromodulators are present in neuron.
7. Binding with ionotropic receptors occurs. 7. Binding with metabotropic receptors occurs which result in activation of secondary molecules.
8. They are fast in action. 8. They are slow but last for longer periods.


9. Reabsorption by presynaptic neurons can occur. 9. They cannot be absorbed by presynaptic neuron.
10. Release takes place in synaptic cleft. 10. Release takes place in any area of neuron.
11. Does not affect neuromodulators synthesis. 11. Controls the synthesis of neurotransmitters.
12. Its affect is between two neurons which are very close to each other. 12. Its affect can be noticed far from the location of its release.
13. Examples: acetylcholine, noradrenaline, serotonin, dopamine, etc. 13. Examples: bradykinin, secretin, endorphin, enkephalins, etc.

Frontiers | Fluorescent Biosensors for Neurotransmission and Neuromodulation:  Engineering and Applications | Cellular Neuroscience

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i) https://www.differencebetween.com/difference-between-neurotransmitter-and-vs-neuromodulator/#:~:text=The%20key%20difference%20between%20neurotransmitter,effectiveness%20of%20the%20signal%20transmission.

ii) https://pediaa.com/what-is-the-difference-between-neurotransmitter-and-neuromodulator/

Differences between neurotransmitters and neuromodulators