Differences between root and stem

S.N               Root           Stem
1. Cuticle layer and stomata is absent usually in epidermis. A thick or thin layer of cuticle always covers the epidermis. In some cases, stomata are also found.
2. Unicellular root hairs are present in epidermis. If the hair is present, it is multicellular.
3. Epidermis provides protection and absorbs water and minerals from the soil. Epidermis is only protective in nature.
4. Hypodermis is not differentiated. However, in some cases, a thick walled exodermis is present. A collenchymatous or sclerenchymatous hypodermis is present.
5. Cortex is broad and well developed.  Cortex is narrow and only present in dicot stem.
6. Distinct endodermis. No distinct endodermis.
7. Single layered pericycle present. In a dicot stem, usually multilayered pericycle is present.
8. Pericycle is endogenous in origin as it gives rise to lateral branches of the root. Lateral branches are exogenous in origin.
9. Radial type of vascular bundles present. Conjoint and collateral type of vascular bundles present.
10. Root has exarch xylem.


Review Parts Of A Plant, Types Of Stems, Types Of Roots - Lessons -  Blendspace

               Image source: blendspace

Stem has endarch xylem.


Structure and Function of the Stem

   Image source: ombiology


i) https://www.majordifferences.com/2013/11/difference-stem-vs-and-root.html

ii) https://garden.org/onlinecourse/Dig21.htm

iii) https://coredifferences.com/difference-between-stems-and-roots/

Differences between root and stem