Five kingdom classification and features

The five kingdom system of classification was proposed by R.H Whittaker in 1969. This classification is based on following criteria:

  • Complexity of cell structure- prokaryote and eukaryote.
  • Complexity of organism’s body- unicellular and multicellular.
  • Mode of obtaining nutrition– autotrophs and heterotrophs.
  • Life style i.e. producers, consumers and decomposers.
  • Phylogenetic relationship.

The five kingdoms are Monera, Protista, Plantae, Fungi and Animalia.

Briefly discuss on five kingdom classification. Add a note on merits and demerits. - Sarthaks eConnect | Largest Online Education Community

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Characteristics of five kingdom

Kingdom 1: Monera (prokaryotes)

  • Smallest and most plentiful organisms on the earth.
  • Can exist in extreme environmental conditions such as absence of oxygen, high salt concentration, high temperature or acidic pH.
  • Such monerans are called archaebacteria or ancient bacteria.
  • Microscopic prokaryotes with incipient nucleus.
  • Possess circular DNA.
  • Lack membrane bound cell organelles.
  • Most have rigid wall.
  • Both autotrophic and heterotrophic nutrition.
  • Known as decomposers and mineralizers.
  • Includes bacteria, cyanobacteria (blue green algae) and archaebacteria.

Moneran phylogeny is best evidenced by the sequence class 11 biology CBSE       kingdom Monera: Sub kindoms Archaebacteria and Eubacteria

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 Kingdom 2: Protista (unicellular eukaryotes)

  • Mostly aquatic, unicellular, microscopic eukaryotes having organized nucleus.
  • Membrane bound cell organelles are present.
  • Often bear cilia or flagella or pseudopodia for locomotion.
  • Various modes of nutrition like holozoic, parasitic, photosynthetic autotrophic.
  • Some protists like euglena lead flexible life styles.
  • Show both asexual and sexual mode of reproduction
  • Includes Amoeba, Paramecium, Euglena , etc.

What is kingdom Protista? Characteristics and Importance - Read Biology

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 Kingdom 3: Plantae (multicellular producers)

  • Multicellular, photosynthetic, eukaryotes with cellulose cell wall.
  • Cells contain chlorophyll pigments so they appear green.
  • Immobile and do not have locomotory organs.
  • Few are heterotrophic and have different modes of nutrition like parasitic (Cuscuta), insectivorous (pitcher plant), symbiotic relationship (Leguminous plants).
  • Primary producers on land and among many shores.
  • Includes diverse groups of plants like algae, bryophyta, pteridophyta gymnosperms and angiosperms present on land or in water.

Plant Kingdom Chart from Montessori for Everyone

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Kingdom 4: Fungi (multicellular, decomposers)

  • Multicellular, eukaryotic, heterotrophs with thallus body.
  • Termed saprobes as they live on dead and decayed organic matter.
  • Some are parasite and live on living plants or animals (Puccinia), some show symbiotic mode of nutrition.
  • Body is branched filamentous commonly called mycelium.
  • Yeasts are exception as they are unicellular.
  • Cell wall is made up of fungal cellulose or chitin.
  • Reproduce by asexual and sexual methods.
  • Reserve food material is in the form of glycogen and oil. Starch is absent.
  • Sex organs are usually unicellular.
  • No embryo formation after gametic union.
  • Includes  Mucor, Rhizopus, Albugo, etc.

Kingdom Fungi. - ppt download

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Kingdom 5: Animalia (multicellular consumers)

  • Multicellular eukaryotes, known as metazoan.
  • Possess locomotory organs, nervous system, and muscular system.
  • Heterotrophic mode of nutrition.

Two Classification of Animals: Vertebrates and Invertebrates | Vertebrates and invertebrates, Animal classification, Classifying animals

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  • Basic consumers on earth.
  • Form links in various food chains and food webs.
  • Exceeds all other kingdom in diversity.
  • Over million species have been named.
  • Includes diverse forms from sponges to mammals.




Five kingdom classification and features