- Fertilized ovary is called fruit.
- It has two parts i.e. fruit wall or pericarp and seeds.
- Pericarp is made up of three layers epicarp, mesocarp and endocarp.
- Fruits might be true fruits and false fruits.
- True fruit develops from ovary and false fruit develop from any part other than ovary.
Types of fruits:
- Fruits are of three types.
- They are simple, aggregate and multiple or composite
1) Simple fruit:
- Develops from syncarpous ovary or monocarpellary ovary.
- It is divided into two types.
- They are dry fruits and fleshy fruits.
Image source: toppr
A) Dry fruits
- Pericarp is not differentiated into three regions.
- It is again divided into three types.
i) Dehiscent or capsular fruits.
It is of following types. They are:
a) legume or pod
- Develops from monocarpellary gynoecium.
- Dehiscence occurs by both the halves by means of suture.
- e.g., pea, gram, bean.
- Develops from bicarpellary gynoecium.
- Unilocular ovary dehiscence occurs by only one halves.
- e.g., Calotropis.
- It is elongated, linear, many seeded.
- Develops from bicarpellary.
- Dehiscence occurs by both the halves from base to the apex.
- e.g., Cruciferae.
- Siliqula is a flat siliqua e.g., Iberis, Capsella.
- Develops from multicarpellary syncarpous ovary.
- Dehiscence occurs by pore (poricidal) e.g., Opium and Argemone, locule (loculicidal) e.g., cotton, ladyfinger, septa (septicidal) e.g., Linum.
- Septa breaks down into segments (septifragal) e.g., Datura.
Image source: botanyworld
ii) Indehiscent or achenial fruits
- These are single seeded, indehiscent dry and simple fruits.
- Formed from monocarpellary pistil having superior and unilocular ovary.
- The pericarp is membranous or leathery.
- Pericarp is free from seed coat except one point.
- e.g., Mirabilis, Boerhaavia, Fagopyrum, etc.
- Pericarp and testa are completely fused.
- e.g., maize, rice, wheat, etc.
- Developed from an inferior bicarpellary ovary.
- e.g., compositae.
- One or two seeded, winged fruits developing from bi or tri-carpellary ovary.
- In samara, wings develop from pericarp e.g., Hiptage, Fraxinus, Dioscorea.
- While in case of Shorea (sal) and Dipterocarpus, wings are formed by persistent sepals.
- One seeded fruits developed from superior, syncarpous pistil.
- Pericarp hard and woody or leathery.
- e.g., Anacardium (cashew nut), Quercus (oak), Litchi.
Image source: brainkart
iii) Splitting or schizocarpic fruits.
- Many seeded, dry and simple fruits. which break up into one seeded parts at maturity.
- Indehiscent single seeded compartment is called mericarp while the dehiscent parts are called cocci.
- These are of following types:
- It is constricted pod.
- e.g., Acacia, Mimosa, Cassia, etc.
- Two seeded fruit, at maturity splits into two mericarp.
- e.g., Coriander, carrot, etc.
- Fruits are broken into indehiscent and single seeded mericarp.
- e.g., Malva, Althaea, Abutilon, etc.
d) Double samara
- Fruit develop from superior bicarpellary ovary.
- When mature it splits into two samaras (mericarp).
- e.g., Acer.
Image source: ecobiohub
- Dry, three to many chambered fruit developing from a syncarpous pistil.
- It splits up at maturity into cocci or dehiscent single seeded parts.
- e.g., Ricinus, Euphorbia, etc.
B) Fleshy fruits
- Pericarp is divided into three distinct regions.
- Pericarp or its associate parts become fleshy.
- These are of various types. They are:
- Fleshy one or more seeded fruit.
- The pericarp differentiated into outer skin or epicarp, often fleshy or fibrous mesocarp and hard or stony endocarp.
- Fruit is also called as stone fruit.
- e.g., mango, coconut, plum, almond, etc.
ii) Bacca or berry
- Fleshy superior, usually many seeded fruit developing commonly from syncarpous pistil (rarely from single carpel) with axile placentation.
- e.g., tomato, grapes, banana, guava, etc.
- Fleshy many seeded fruit like but it develops from inferior one celled or three celled syncarpous pistil with parietal placentation.
- e.g., cucumber, pumpkin, watermelon.
- This is an inferior, two or more celled, fleshy, syncarpous fruit.
- Surrounded by the thalamus (fleshy edible part is thalamus).
- While the actual fruit lies within. e.g., apple, pear.
- Superior, many celled fleshy fruit with axile placentation.
- Endocarp projects inwards forming distinct chamber.
- Epicarp and mesocarp fuse together and form a separable skin.
- Edible part is juicy placental hairs.
- e.g., Citrus spp. (orange, lemon).
- It is special type of false berry.
- Epicarp and thalamus fused to form leathery structure called rind.
- Mesocarp is plate like in-foldings in the fruit and endocarp is the membrane surrounding the juicy seeds.
- Edible part is juicy testa of seeds.
2) Aggregate fruits
- Collection of simple fruits developing from apocarpous pistil.
- Aggregate of simple fruits borne by single flower is known as etaerio.
- Etaerio of follicles: Michelia, Calotropis, Vinca.
- Etaerio of achenes: rose, lotus, strawberry.
- Etaerio of drupes: raspberry.
- Etaerio of berries: custard apple.
3) Multiple or composite fruits
- Fruits develop from the inflorescence.
- They are of following types. They are:
- Develops from spike, catkin or spadix inflorescence.
- e.g., pineapple, mulberry, jackfruit.
ii) Syconous or syconium
- Develops from hypanthodium inflorescence.
- e.g., Ficus spp (banyan, peepal, fig).
Fruit and its type