Grafting and its types

  • It is one of the artificial methods of vegetative propagation.
  • In this method, the root system of one plant is combined to the shoot system of another plant to obtain a plant of superior quality.
  • The plant whose root system is taken is called stock and whose shoot system is taken is called scion.
  • This technique is used in mango, lemon, apple, peach, plum, etc.
  • The ends of a scion and stock to be grafted are cut obliquely and placed face to face.
  • Thus, the cambia of the both plants come in close contact.
  • Then, the scion and stock are bound firmly with a tape (cloth) and covered with wax.
  • After a time of few weeks, both the scion and stock combine firmly resulting in a new plant.
  • There are various types of grafting. They are:

a) Whip grafting

b) Tongue grafting

c) Cleft grafting


i) Whip grafting

  • It is an easy and simple method of grafting.
  • The scion and stock are cut in slanted position (about 3.5 cm) and then joined.
  • The grafted point is then bound with tape or plastic.
  • It is covered with soft wax to prevent dehydration and germs.
  • It is the most common method of grafting in commercial fruit trees.
  • The scion and stock combine within 2-3 months.
  • The plastic and tape can be removed after that time period.
  • This method is applied before the fruit trees sprout.

Image result for whip grafting


ii) Tongue grafting

  • It is also an easy and simple method of vegetative propagation.
  • The lower portion of scion and upper portion of stock is cut obliquely (about 3-5 cm) in this method.
  • Then, a tongue like deep structure is cut in both the scion and stock so that both fit into one another.
  • After that, the connected portion is sealed with tape or plastic to make air tight.
  • The stock and scion combine with each other after 2-3 months.
  • This method is common in fruit trees of the mountain and hilly regions.

Image result for tongue grafting          Image result for tongue grafting


iii)) Cleft grafting

  • A small cut of about 5-8 cm is made in the stalk and then pointed end of the scion is inserted in the stalk.
  • It is also one of the most common forms of grafting.
  • This grafting is done generally in the spring season.
  • It is useful for joining a thin scion of about 1 cm diameter to a thicker branch or stock.
  • The branch or stock should be split carefully down the middle to form a cleft about 3 cm deep.
  • The end of the scion should be cut cleanly to a long shallow wedge with a single cut.
  • Then the scion is inserted into the cleft and sealed with a tape or plastic to make it airtight.
  • Both the scion and stock combine within 2-3 months.

Image result for cleft grafting                  Image result for cleft grafting




Grafting and its types