- It is one of the artificial methods of vegetative propagation.
- In this method, the root system of one plant is combined to the shoot system of another plant to obtain a plant of superior quality.
- The plant whose root system is taken is called stock and whose shoot system is taken is called scion.
- This technique is used in mango, lemon, apple, peach, plum, etc.
- The ends of a scion and stock to be grafted are cut obliquely and placed face to face.
- Thus, the cambia of the both plants come in close contact.
- Then, the scion and stock are bound firmly with a tape (cloth) and covered with wax.
- After a time of few weeks, both the scion and stock combine firmly resulting in a new plant.
- There are various types of grafting. They are:
a) Whip grafting
b) Tongue grafting
c) Cleft grafting
i) Whip grafting
- It is an easy and simple method of grafting.
- The scion and stock are cut in slanted position (about 3.5 cm) and then joined.
- The grafted point is then bound with tape or plastic.
- It is covered with soft wax to prevent dehydration and germs.
- It is the most common method of grafting in commercial fruit trees.
- The scion and stock combine within 2-3 months.
- The plastic and tape can be removed after that time period.
- This method is applied before the fruit trees sprout.
ii) Tongue grafting
- It is also an easy and simple method of vegetative propagation.
- The lower portion of scion and upper portion of stock is cut obliquely (about 3-5 cm) in this method.
- Then, a tongue like deep structure is cut in both the scion and stock so that both fit into one another.
- After that, the connected portion is sealed with tape or plastic to make air tight.
- The stock and scion combine with each other after 2-3 months.
- This method is common in fruit trees of the mountain and hilly regions.
iii)) Cleft grafting
- A small cut of about 5-8 cm is made in the stalk and then pointed end of the scion is inserted in the stalk.
- It is also one of the most common forms of grafting.
- This grafting is done generally in the spring season.
- It is useful for joining a thin scion of about 1 cm diameter to a thicker branch or stock.
- The branch or stock should be split carefully down the middle to form a cleft about 3 cm deep.
- The end of the scion should be cut cleanly to a long shallow wedge with a single cut.
- Then the scion is inserted into the cleft and sealed with a tape or plastic to make it airtight.
- Both the scion and stock combine within 2-3 months.
Grafting and its types