Layering and its types

  • It is one of the artificial methods of asexual reproduction.
  • In this method, the roots are developed on the stem while the stem is still attached to the parent plant.
  • This method is commonly used in jasmine, magnolia, strawberry, raspberry, etc.
  • Many plantlets can be produced in a short period of time.
  • It is induced artificially by bending the branch to the ground and covering it with the moist soil.
  • The apical part of the stem produces leaves whereas the underground part produces the roots.
  • Later the layered branch is separated from the parent plant.

Types of layering

  • Layering can be done by various methods.
  • Some common methods of layering are given below:

A) Simple layering

  • In this method, a low growing stem of more than one year age is bent downward and the target region is buried in the soil.
  • A few inches of the leafy stem must remain above the ground for the bent stem to grow into a new plant.
  • The buried portion of the stem develops roots after 2-3 months when watered regularly.
  • When the stem develops roots, it is separated from the parent plant and kept in nurseries.
  • Plants like lemon, citrus, etc. are propagated by this method.

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B) Compound layering

  • The entire low growing stem is bent downward and buried in the soil in this method.
  • Its tip should be out of the soil.
  • The stem should be watered regularly so that the nodes produce new plantlets.
  • This method is commonly applied in apples, pears, walnuts, etc. to produce many plantlets in a short period of time.

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C) Tip layering

  • The tip of the stem of a plant is buried in the soil to develop new plants in this method.
  • About a 5 to 8 cm long tip of the stem is buried in the soil and watered regularly.
  • When the tip develops roots, the portion of the stem is separated from the parent plants after 3-4 months.
  • This method is commonly applied in raspberry, blackberry, etc.

Vegetative Propagation Through Layering|UCBMSH.ORG

                                                                                 Image source: biomedicalsciences   

D) Mound or stool layering

  • Ground layering, or mound layering is the typical propagation technique.
  • The original plants are set in the ground with the stem nearly horizontal, which forces side buds to grow upward.

Mound orStool Layering

                                                                                          Image source: propgifas

  • After this, the original stem is buried up-to 20 to 25 cm from the ground.
  • At the end of the growing season, the side branches will develop roots and can be separated after one year.

E)Air layering

  • The target region of the stem is wounded or a strip of bark is removed and then encased in a moisture retaining medium, such as a moss or cloth.
  • It is further surrounded in a moisture barrier such as a plastic film.
  • Rooting hormone i.e. IBA(Indole -3- butyric acid) is often applied to encourage the growth of roots.
  • The wounded portion develops roots within 4-8 weeks.
  • Then, the portion is separated from the parent plant and planted.
  • Air layering is the most popular method of artificial vegetative propagation.

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Layering and its types