- The period between conception (fertilization) and birth is called pregnancy. The pregnancy period generally lasts for 9 months and 7 days.
- During this period, some health problems are observed.
- They can be in the form of minor problems and major problems both.
A)Minor problems of pregnancy
The various minor problems of pregnancy are:
- Nausea and vomiting
- Chest pain
- Hyper acidity
- muscle cramps
- Itching in the body
- Numbness in feet
- Swelling of veins in legs (varicose veins)
B)Major Problems of Pregnancy
- In some situation, major problems may occur during pregnancy.
- In the case of major problems; appropriate care and medical treatment are essential.
- The major problems of pregnancy are as follows:
- It refers to the removal of immature foetus before 24 weeks of pregnancy.
- If the pregnancy date is unknown, the expulsion of foetus with less than 500 gm is also considered as abortion.
- Abortion can be defined as the termination of pregnancy before the foetus gains survival qualities.
Types: Spontaneous and Induced abortion
i) Spontaneous abortion
- The abortion, which takes place without the involvement of human or human enforcement is called spontaneous abortion. It is also called as miscarriage.
i. Abnormal size of uterus
ii. Chronic infection during pregnancy
iii. Chronic malnutrition
iv. Excessive mental tension and anxiety during pregnancy
v. RH negative factor in the mother’s blood
vi. Injury in uterus during the pregnancy time
ii) Induced abortion
- It refers to the deliberate termination of pregnancy by using medicine or with the help of trained and authorized health personnel.
- The main reason of induced abortion is unwanted pregnancy.
- Usually, the pregnancy of unmarried girls, widows, sex workers are found aborted.
- At present, there is provision of legal abortion in our country (Nepal) in certain conditions.
- According to this provision (Abortion Act, 2058 BS), women can abort their pregnancy before 12 weeks.
- At present, safe abortion service is being provided by maternity hospital, Marie Stope clinics of different districts and Family Planning clinics.
- It is hoped that people will be encouraged for safe abortion services from authorized abortion centers and authorized medical personnel’s only.
i. Unwanted pregnancy
ii. Sex preference (son/daughter)
iii. Health complication of mother
iv. Abnormality or deformity of foetus
v. Premarital and or extra marital pregnancy
vi. Pregnancy resulted by rape, incest relation, etc.
- Toxemia refers to the illness during pregnancy due to the concentration of toxic substances in the blood.
- It is also called pre-eclampsia or eclampsia.
- Pre-eclampsia is a disorder of pregnancyin which there is high blood pressure and either large amounts of protein in the urine or other organ dysfunction.
- Eclampsiais the onset of seizures (convulsions) in those woman with pre-eclampsia.
- This kind of illness is observed in very few pregnant women.
i. Severe headache
ii. High blood pressure
iii. Excessive weight gain
iv. Swelling of ankles
v. Presence of protein in urine
vi. Blurred vision
vii. Abdominal pain
c) Ectopic pregnancy
- The implantation of fertilized zygote at any place other than in the uterus is called ectopic pregnancy.
- In other words, the development of fetus at a site other than in the womb is called ectopic pregnancy.
- Generally, ectopic pregnancy occurs at the site of fallopian tube, abdomen and ovary.
- Obstruction in fallopian tubes, improper use of IUD and endometrial tumors are considered as the main reasons of ectopic pregnancy.
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- The normal blood pressure of an adult person is 120/80 mm of hg.
- Hypertension refers to the blood pressure which is higher than normal level of blood pressure.
- Hypertension is also one of the major problems of pregnancy and is believed that it is resulted by anxiety, tension, toxemia, etc.
ii. Nausea and vomiting
iv. Blurred vision
e) RH incompatibility
- RH incompatibility is a condition that occurs during pregnancy if a woman has RH negative blood and her baby has RH positive blood.
- ‘RH negative” and ‘RH positive” refer to whether the blood has Rh factor or not.
- RH factor is a protein on red blood cells.
- If the woman is RH negative and her baby is RH positive, her body will react to the baby’s blood as foreign substance.
- In this condition, the RH antibodies may cross the placenta and attack the baby’s red blood cells.
- This can lead to hemolytic anemia in the growing foetus.
- Hemolytic anemia is the condition in which red blood cells are destroyed faster than the body can replace them.
- As a result, severe anemia, brain damage or even death occurs in the foetus.
Problems of Pregnancy